Seksualni dimorfizem možganov

Pri raziskovanju gradiva o delovanju možganov sem naletel na zanimivo predavanje o temi, o kateri že dolgo ni bilo nobenega dobrega prepira in ga bom zato podelil z vami. Hecam se. Vnaprej naj povem, da se s tem zapisom ne razglašam za strokovnjaka na tem področju. Seksualnost pri ljudeh je zelo kompleksna tema in ta zapis nima namena reševati kakšnih velikih vprašanj. Znanci bi me verjetno ideološko uvrstili v zvrst izumirajoče vrste zmernih “homofobov”. Vsebina tega predavanja mi je pa ponudila malce drugačen pogled na spol in mogoče istospolne sedaj vsaj malenkost bolj razumem kot prej.

Biologi radi seksualnost razdelijo na različne kategorije, ki z medsebojnim delovanjem vplivajo na seksualnost človeka.
V teh kategorijah je:
– GENOTIPSKI SPOL – določen z dedovanjem XX ali XY kromosomov. Ta vpliva kako se razvijejo seksualni organi, v jajčnike ali v moda. Ta spol je določen pri spočetju in je odvisen od tega, ali oče prispeva X ali Y kromosom zarodku. Iz tega izhaja, da so očetje “krivi” za spol otroka in je bilo v zgodovini zelo veliko žensk po krivici klevetano, da ne morejo spočeti sinov..
– FENOTIPSKI SPOL – ta je determiniran z razvojem notranjih / zunanjih genitalij.
Iz tega je razvidno, da sta genotipski in fenotipski spol očitno povezana, je pa dejstvo da včasih nastanejo nepravilnosti, tako da obstaja nekaj izjem.
– SPOLNA IDENTIFIKACIJA je tretja kategorija in je določena z izkušnjami in subjektivno percepcijo svojega spola. Je torej konstrukcija možganov, kreirana na račun sprejete seksualne identitete.
Nevroznanost je opredelila še eno kategorijo – MOŽGANSKI SPOL
Možganski spol kaže dejanske strukturalne razlike v načinu organiziranja možganov med moškimi in ženskami. Prav te razlike lahko vplivajo na način kako moški ali ženske reagirajo na svoje okolje in na spolno identifikacijo. Različnost teh dveh organizacijskih oblik imenujemo SEKSUALNI DIMORFIZEM MOŽGANOV.

Ta dimorfizem je viden kot razlika v velikosti, številu in gostoti nevronov v določenem manjšem možganskem središču (nucleai). Dimorfizem je viden tudi pri tipu sinaptičnih povezav med skupinami nevronov, v središčih se prikažejo tudi določeni receptorji in druge molekule.
Pomembno se je zavedati, da so naši možgani že na splošno precej različno organizirani, torej, katerokoli strukturo pogledamo, vedno najdemo razlike. Če vzamemo skupino žensk, bo gotovo med njimi precej variacij v določenem predelu, enako seveda velja tudi za moške. Toda kadar govorimo o seksualnem dimorfizmu, pomeni, da so razlike med moškimi in ženskami veliko večje, kot med pripadniki posameznih skupin. Te razlike so ponekod tako velike, da jih lahko izkušen nevroznanstvenik prepozna že na pogled.
Predvideva se, da te razlike vplivajo na to, kako se nek človek odziva na okolico in kako deluje.
In kaj je tisto, kar inducira seksualni dimorfizem v možganih?
Na začetku razvoja je centralni živčni sistem zarodka “ekvipotencialen” za razvoj kateregakoli možganskega spola. Torej ni odvisen od XX ali XY kombinacije kromosomov.
Normalno, pri moških, nedorasli testisi producirajo majhne količine testosterona, ki “maskulinizira” moške spolne organe in možgane. Povzroči tudi regresijo določenih tkiv, ki bi kasneje pomagala razvijati žensko strukturo. Majhne količine testosterona, pridejo v nevrone v določenih strukturah možganov in prav te strukture kasneje pokažejo dimorfizem. Testosteron se pravzaprav pretvori v estradiol in ta povzroči maskulinizacijo moških možganov. To povzroči določeno “pakiranje” nevronov, drugačne sinaptične povezave med njimi in kasnejši razvoj moških možganov.
In kaj povzroči ženske možgane? Ker estrogen maskulinizira moške možgane, se pojavlja vprašanje, kaj je z velikimi količinami estrogena, ki cirkulira v ženskem krvnem obtoku. Odgovor se skriva v tem, da so v krvnem obtoku določeni proteini, ki se vežejo z estrogenom in da maskulinizacijo povzroči, samo tisti estrogen, ki se pretvori iz testosterona v določenih skupinah nevronov.
Ženske možgane “povzroči” pomanjkanje tiste majhne količine testosterona. Ženska “organizacija” možganov je “default” za človeške možgane.
Če torej majhne gonade v moškem fetusu ne proizvedejo dovolj testosterona, se bodo razvili ženski možgani. Pri materah, ki v kritičnem obdobju iz kakšnega razloga proizvajajo preveč androgenov v krvnem obtoku, če so izpostavljene določenim vrstam steroidov, če jemljejo droge, kot so barbiturati in v zadnjem obdobju se je pokazal celo vpliv ob izpostavljenosti določenim pesticidom, se bodo v zarodku razvili moški možgani.
Možgani postanejo spolno dimorfični v točno določenem kritičnem okencu časa. Pri razvoju zarodka imamo za različne stvari, različna kritična obdobja (okenca), kritično obdobje za spolni dimorfizem pri človeku je pred rojstvom. Od takrat naprej je možganski spol determiniran in ga ni mogoče spremeniti. Torej hormoni, ki se sproščajo med puberteto delujejo na možgane, ki so že seksualno dimorfični.
Dokaze za ta dimorfizem so pridobivali s kliničnimi preiskavami in s preizkusi na živalih.
Za te poizkuse je najprimernejša podgana, ki ima kritično okence razvoja šele po rojstvu. Znanstveniki tako veliko lažje manipulirajo s hormonskim okoljem, kot v uterusu.
Primerne so tudi zato, ker je seksualno obnašanje odraslih podgan zelo dimorfično. Torej jih je zlahka ločiti po spolni usmerjenosti.
Poizkusi (hormonska manipulacija samic in kastracija samcev v kritičnem obdobju)so popolnoma potrdili ugotovitve, ki sem jih navedel.
Bistveno je, da je obnašanje odraslih živali popolnoma odvisno od možganskega spola in ne od genotipskega in fenotipskega.
Pri ljudeh so seksualno dimorfični predeli na hipotalamusu, hipokampus, amigdala, deli možganske skorje vključeno z orbitofrontalnim korteksom. Razlaga je preobsežna, da bi jo lahko opisoval v zapisu. Pomembno je vedeti, da se v teh predelih spremeni način procesiranja informacij med moškimi in ženskimi možgani.
Posledica dimorfizma je zelo hitra in striktna lateralizacija moških možganov. Pomeni, da so centri v moških možganih bolj striktno vzpostavijo v določenih predelih in njihove funkcije se težje prenašajo drugam. To je zelo opazno pri poškodbah leve hemisfere pri majhnih fantkih. Leva hemisfera vsebuje centre za jezik. Vsebuje seveda še marsikaj drugega, a to področje je najbolj raziskano. Mladi moški, ki si poškodujejo levo hemisfero imajo lahko težave z govorjenjem in razumevanjem jezikov vse življenje, tudi na splošno ima več moških težavo z disleksijo in težave pri branju v šoli.
Pri mladih deklicah se pri enakih poškodbah pokaže, da desna hemisfera prevzame večino funkcij za jezik. Pri odraslih ženskah se največkrat sploh ne opazi, da so imele kakšne poškodbe. Ta prevzem funkcij velja celo za odrasle osebe. Moški, ki jih zadene kap v teh predelih imajo velike težave z govorjenjem, medtem, ko si ženske zelo hitro opomorejo.
Če si ogledamo aktivnosti možganov z FMRI, vidimo, da v ženskih možganih obstaja nekakšna ekvipotencialnost, pri moških so pa stvari bolj striktno ločene. Kaže, da je dimorfizmu podvržen celo corpus colosum. To se opazi, ko ženske rešujejo določene zadane probleme in FMRI pokaže aktivnosti razpršene po obeh hemisferah, pri moških se pa enaki problemi rešujejo v eni ali v drugi hemisferi.
Dejstvo je, da pri večini živalskih vrst razlika med možgani samcev in samic obstaja. Tu sploh ni govora o vrednostnih ocenah, lahko govorimo samo o tem, kakšne prednosti oz. slabosti ima povprečen samec ali samica. Za ženske (ljudje) je ugotovljeno, da bolje in hitreje berejo obrazne spremembe in intonacijo glasu pri izražanju čustev (spremembe v amigdali). To velja celo za dojenčice. Ženske naj bi imele mnogo boljši čustveni spomin, kot moški. To se vidi npr. pri FMRI, če imajo opazovanci konfliktne naloge. Amigdala je pri ženskah mnogo bolj aktivna. Pri moških se pa sprosti več testosterona.
Torej prednosti “povprečne” ženske naj bi bile v boljših jezikovnih sposobnostih, večji sposobnosti empatije in večjem čustvenem spominu. Moški naj bi bili pa superiorni pri prostorskem razmišljanju in sposobnosti izgradnje sistemov. Seveda to ne pomeni, da posamezna ženska , ali moški ne moreta imeti superiornih sposobnosti, ki “pripadajo” drugi strani.
Na vso to podlago se navežejo še kulturne posebnosti, ki jim je vsakdo podvržen, od rojstva naprej.
Značilnost svetovnih kultur je, da tipično pretiravajo z ustvarjanjem razlike med spoloma in jo nenehno povečujejo. Kulture določajo, kaj je sprejemljivo obnašanje za moške in kaj za ženske. Začne se skoraj neopazno z modrimi in roza pajacki, nadaljuje z igračami in počasi, a vztrajno se spravi v pogon ves nabor “specialnosti”, ki na koncu pripelje do “normalno zdresiranega” moškega ali ženske.
Koliko vpliva “vrsta” možgan na izbiro seksualnega partnerja pri odraslih osebah?
Dejansko so se pokazale povezave pri primerjavi možganov homoseksualcev s heteroseksualci. Vendar je to ena tistih tem, kjer dokazi niso nikoli zadostni, zato se navaja klinični primer, ki je dobro raziskan. Obstaja bolezen “Adrenal hyperplasia”. Pri tej bolezni se v kritičnem času proizvaja preveč androgena, kar vpliva na maskulinizacijo možganov.
Imamo torej primere, kjer je genotipski in fenotipski spol definitivno ženski, možganski spol pa moški. Deklice s to boleznijo v vsem svojem razvoju kažejo fantovske lastnosti in si ponavadi poiščejo tudi žensko partnerko.
Večina nevro-znanstvenikov bi se strinjala, da obstajajo med spoloma telesne razlike, razlike v možganih in ker so možgani podlaga razumu je razlika tudi v razmišljanju, ter v obnašanju.
Tudi ta tema je v “procesu raziskovanja” in nima dokončnih zaključkov. Kot vse ostalo, pa nakazuje, da tudi tukaj zadeve niso črno – bele. Kemijski učinki med razvojem zarodka imajo pa nedvomno velikanski vpliv na kasnejše življenje.

23 odzivov na “Seksualni dimorfizem možganov”

  1. Казахстанская компания Абай Камалова ТОО “Камал Ойл” получила
    право на проведение разведывательных работ и добычу
    редкоземельных металлов на месторождениях Кутессай-II и
    бериллия Калесай в Чуйской области Кыргызстана. Конкурс
    состоялся 25 марта.Абай Камалов получил лицензию на разработку
    редкоземельных металлов.

  2. The airport in Liepaja did a great job – in 2015 after its
    reconstruction was completed. At the airport a significant
    drainage effort was undertaken, a new cover for the take-off
    track was laid, the take-off strip was reinforced, the cover
    of the shunting route was improved and expanded, parking places
    for the aircraft were renovated as well. After Liepaja Airport
    was certified for commercial flights for the summer season in
    2016, the Latvian national airline “AirBaltic” launched regular
    flights between Riga and Liepaja. During the first half of that
    year, more than 4,780 passengers were transported along this
    route. The five most popular

  3. Rolands Petersons, member of the board of CPM Trading SIA,
    Railway transport is one of the most promising modes of inland transport, and, at the moment, it is said to be the crucial element in the economy of Latvia. Considering the entire volume of inland transport, the share of railway freight is about 52%, whereas the volume of the passenger transportation is 6% and in Riga suburban area the number is increasing up to 30%. However, the data summarized by the Ministry of Communications still shows that in Latvia the volume of freight rail transportation by comparison with 2016 has decreased by 8.4% and amounted to 43.792 million tons.

    Traffic congestion can lead to a loss of 200 billion euros
    The mobility of goods is an essential component of the EU internal market; this greatly contributes to the competitiveness of the industry and services in Europe. The types of lengthy transportation as railway can reduce their costs, which arise in connection with the traffic congestion on the roads. The increase of approximately 50% is projected by the year 2050, reaching a volume of almost 200 billion euros per year.

    In the future, it is possible to increase the volume of rail transportation. Rolands petersons defacto
    The amount of international rail transportation in 2017 was 42.138 million tons, which showed a decline of 9.1% compared to 2016. However, domestic traffic has increased by 11.5% to 1.653 million tonnes. The volume of transit cargo from the total amount of international rail freight transport amounted to 38.719 million tons, which showed a drop of 6.5% compared to the previous year, the volume of imported goods was 3.067 million tons, or 22.4% less, and the volume of export cargo was 351 800 tons, which was a drop of 2.8 times. In 2016, in Latvia, by rail, 47.821 million tons were transported. Taking into consideration the decline in the international transport sector in 2017, the question is, by which means can we achieve the volume increase? By implementation of the well-considered long-term solutions, it is possible to get back to the level that used to be before the embargo against Russia was introduced in 2013.

    Increase of the average commercial speed of freight trains.
    One of the key priorities nowadays is the development of the railway infrastructure, and in this case, it is expected, the railway infrastructure can be financed by the European Union.Rolands petersons defacto It is essential to find a solution how to increase the average commercial speed of freight trains since the speed is only about 18 km/h on the majority international routes in Europe. One of the solutions can be the improvement of cooperation between existing infrastructure organizations in Europe. The actual train system needs to be adapted to the needs of the railway freight transport sector, especially in the EU freight rail corridors. This would contribute to the competitiveness of rail transport with other modes of transport, especially with the road transport sector, which infrastructure is easily accessible in all Member States.

    Well-thought-out charge for the use of infrastructure. Rolands petersons defacto
    Freight trains pay for each kilometer of the railway infrastructure, which again adversely affects the competitiveness of the railway in comparison with road transport, where such charge is not always introduced. Setting the price that users are required to pay for getting into the infrastructure, it would be necessary to take into account the impact on the environment and pollution, congestion, accidents and other aspects. Rolands petersons defacto
    The state should provide a proper support for organizations managing infrastructure, and rail transport enterprises should strive to improve the competitiveness of rail freight services, especially in regards to reliability, filling, elasticity, customer orientation, and the duration and cost of transportation, as these are the main aspects which are considered by an average consignor in selecting any of the available modes of transport.

    Elimination imperfections in the liberalization of the freight transport process
    In cooperation with both, the public and private sectors, at the international level, imperfections related to the liberalization of freight rail transport, communication lines procedures, administrative and technical restrictions, monitoring and anticipating performance in the rail freight industry, and fair competition between different modes of transportation. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the ways to make a better use of available EU funding and target it to the rail transport industry in order to achieve improvements in such areas as a coherent approach to policy objectives and funding (while focusing on corridors for freight railways transportation), for the selection, planning and management of projects, as well as for the maintenance of railroad networks.

    Not only update, but also regularly support
    It is essential to take to the new level not only the quality of the services provided to carriers and shippers of rail freight but, in general, to improve the competitiveness of rail freight transport; infrastructure managing organizations should not only update and modernize the railway network but also to regularly support it.Rolands petersons defacto This is especially important for the corridors of rail freight. If the tracks are not properly maintained, the speed limits will have to be applied and the railway lines will gradually be obstructed.

  4. Transport and logistics industries are of particular importance for the Latvian economy since they have a steady GDP growth and provide services to virtually all other sectors of the national economy. Every year it is emphasized that this sector should be recognized as a priority and extend its promotion, however, the representatives of the transport and logistics sector are looking forward to more concrete and long-term solutions.Rolands petersons privatbank

    9.1% of the value added to the GDP of Latvia

    Despite the political and economic changes of the last decade, the influence of the transport and logistics industry on the economy of our country remains high: in 2016 the sector increased the value added to the GDP by 9.1%. Moreover, the average monthly gross wage is still higher then in other sectors – in 2016 in other sectors of the economy it was 859 euros, whereas in storage and transportation sector the average gross wage is about 870 euros (1,562 euros – water transport, 2,061 euros – air transport, 1059 euros in the of storage and auxiliary transport activities, etc.).

    Special economic area as an additional support Rolands petersons privatbank

    The positive examples of the logistics industry are the ports that have developed a good structure. Riga and Ventspils ports function as free ports, and the Liepaja port is included in the Liepaja Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Companies operating in free ports and SEZ can receive not only the 0 tax rate for customs, excise, and value-added tax but also a discount of up to 80% of the company’s income and up to 100% of the real estate tax.Rolands petersons privatbank The port is actively implementing various investment projects related to the construction and development of industrial and distribution parks. The attraction of investments promotes the creation of higher added value, development of production, expansion of a spectrum of given services and creation of new workplaces. It is necessary to bring to the attention the small ports – SKULTE, Mersrags, SALACGRiVA, Pavilosta, Roja, Jurmala, and Engure, which currently occupy a stable position in the Latvian economy and have already become regional economic activity centers.Rolands petersons privatbank

    Port of Liepaja, will be the next Rotterdam.Rolands petersons privatbank

    There is also a wide range of opportunities for growth, and a number of actions that can be taken to meet projected targets. There is a strong need for the services with high added value, the increase of the processed volumes of cargo by attracting new freight flows, high-quality passenger service and an introduction of modern technologies and information systems in the area of transit and logistics.Rolands petersons privatbank Liepaja port has all the chances to become the second Rotterdam in the foreseeable future.

    Latvia as a distribution center for cargos from Asia and the Far East.

    One of the most important issues for further growth of the port and special economic zone is the development of logistics and distribution centers, mainly focusing on the attraction of goods from Asia and the Far East.Rolands petersons privatbank Latvia can serve as a distribution center for cargos in the Baltic and Scandinavian countries for Asia and the Far East (f.e. China, Korea). The tax regime of the Liepaja Special Economic Zone in accordance with the Law “On Taxation in Free Ports and Special Economic Zones” on December 31, 2035. This allows traders to conclude an agreement on investment and tax concession until December 31, 2035, until they reach a contractual level of assistance from the investments made.Rolands petersons privatbank Considering the range of benefits provided by this status, it is necessary to consider the possible extension of the term.

    Infrastructure development and expansion of warehouse space

    Our advantage lies in the fact that there is not only a strategic geographical position but also a developed infrastructure that includes deep-water berths, cargo terminals, pipelines and territories free from the cargo terminal.Rolands petersons privatbank Apart from this, we can add a good structure of pre-industrial zone, distribution park, multi-purpose technical equipment, as well as the high level of security not only in terms of delivery but also in terms of the storage and handling of goods.Rolands petersons privatbank In the future, it would be advisable to pay more attention to access roads (railways and highways), increase the volume of storage facilities, and increase the number of services provided by ports.Rolands petersons privatbank Participation in international industry exhibitions and conferences will make it possible to attract additional foreign investments and will contribute to the improvement of international image.Rolands petersons privatbank

  5. Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.
    Rolands petersons privatbank has released a new forecasts of UAE economy. Analysing the indicators of the last 20 months, we can conclude that since August non-oil economy growth has slowed down. The seasonally adjusted purchasing managers’ index – a composite indicator designed to give an overview of operating conditions in the non-oil private sector economy – dropped to 55 in August, from 55,8 in July].Despite slower growth, optimism among businesses in the UAE’s non-oil private sector accelerated to a record high.
    Rolands petersons privatbank Optimism is encouraged by the reluctance of many companies to launch new products, implement innovative marketing efforts, and opportunities to participate in Expo 2020].
    Rolands petersons privatbank In general, the reduction was wee, and the fact that a large part of the companies has abandoned the reduction of the workforce, which, on the one hand, would help to save, is right, as companies have not lost their effectiveness. Most companies have acted exactly the opposite – they stimulated stagnant economic growth with new products, accordingly obtaining new orders as well, Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.
    Rolands petersons privatbank offers his thoughts on UAE economy.Another point to be emphasized is that non-oil business operators in the UAE have shown that sometimes exactly the opposite action of the usual behaviour can improve the situation. In the area of a??a??pricing policy, most private non-oil companies in the UAE, instead of raising pressure on prices, announced constant prices, furthermore, some companies reported about price reduction, which was related to advertising activities.
    Rolands petersons privatbankThe rate of growth was marked overall and reflected stronger inflows of new business from neighbouring GCC countries, besides new export orders rose once again during August and September.About Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.:A Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.
    Rolands petersons privatbankis an international logistics company based in Poland since 2016. This company operates in Europe and also in many other major logistics centres in the world. The core business is a cargo brokerage, mainly marine cargo.
    Rolands petersons privatbank Norman Logistics customers is significant EU companies which his production transport throughout marine cargo. And service providers are medium or large shipping companies. The mission of Norman Logistics is convenient logistics and one-point service for the same price, individual and best quality approach.
    Rolands petersons privatbank

    Author: Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.

  6. Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons privatbank has released a new report on Cyprus who experienced an economic recession just recently, but indicated 5th most rapid growth in the European Union last year. In the last quarter of 2017 economic growth reached 3,9% – Cyprus achieved such a result for the first time in the last ten years, according to Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons privatbank
    Member of the board CPM Trading LTD Rolands Peterson (PRNewsfoto/CPM Trading LTD)
    The amount of investment funds and the amount of assets being managed by them reflected growth in late 2017 and first half of 2018. In December 2017 there were 114 funds registered in Cyprus, but this year there are 130 already].Rolands petersons privatbank The amount of assets managed by them experienced growth of 6%, reaching 4,718 billion euros in absolute terms (for comparison we could mention that in March this year the total amount of assets reached only 4,446 billion euros)].Rolands petersons privatbank
    In August the Cyprus Department of Transportation initiated amendments in its transportation fiscal policy, influencing new and used transport facilities registered after the law will be adopted. Rolands petersons privatbank Outlining the above amendments are providing bigger road taxes for drivers with older cars and more horsepower, but those green-thinking will pay less. Such amendments provide several advantages: save income from transport taxation, decrease environment pollution, contribute to assets flow, and new car purchased stimulates a more attractive environment for foreigners, according to Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons privatbank who offers his thoughts on the Cyprus economy.
    Smart investment and fiscal policy, increasing the budget income, simultaneously stimulating the national economy and one of the most important areas – tourism, as well as caring about environment protection in total resulted in significant economic growth and we are sure that in total numbers of 2018 Cyprus will also provide a great example for many economies.Rolands petersons privatbank
    About Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.:
    Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. is an international logistics company based in Poland since 2016. This company operates in Europe and also in many other major logistics centers in the world.Rolands petersons privatbank The core business is a cargo brokerage, mainly marine cargo. Norman Logistics customers is significant EU companies which his production transport throughout marine cargo. And service providers is medium or large shipping companies. The mission of Norman Logistics is convenient logistics and one point service for the same price, individual and best quality approach.Rolands petersons privatbank
    Author: Rolands Petersons, member of the board of “Norman Logistics spzoo”

  7. Rolands Petersons, member of the board of CPM Trading SIA,
    Railway transport is one of the most promising modes of inland transport, and, at the moment, it is said to be the crucial element in the economy of Latvia. Considering the entire volume of inland transport, the share of railway freight is about 52%, whereas the volume of the passenger transportation is 6% and in Riga suburban area the number is increasing up to 30%.Rolands petersons minicredit However, the data summarized by the Ministry of Communications still shows that in Latvia the volume of freight rail transportation by comparison with 2016 has decreased by 8.4% and amounted to 43.792 million tons.Rolands petersons minicredit

    Traffic congestion can lead to a loss of 200 billion euros
    The mobility of goods is an essential component of the EU internal market; this greatly contributes to the competitiveness of the industry and services in Europe.Rolands petersons minicredit The types of lengthy transportation as railway can reduce their costs, which arise in connection with the traffic congestion on the roads. The increase of approximately 50% is projected by the year 2050, reaching a volume of almost 200 billion euros per year.Rolands petersons minicredit

    In the future, it is possible to increase the volume of rail transportation.
    The amount of international rail transportation in 2017 was 42.138 million tons, which showed a decline of 9.1% compared to 2016. However, domestic traffic has increased by 11.5% to 1.653 million tonnes.Rolands petersons minicredit The volume of transit cargo from the total amount of international rail freight transport amounted to 38.719 million tons, which showed a drop of 6.5% compared to the previous year, the volume of imported goods was 3.067 million tons, or 22.4% less, and the volume of export cargo was 351 800 tons, which was a drop of 2.8 times. In 2016, in Latvia, by rail, 47.821 million tons were transported. Taking into consideration the decline in the international transport sector in 2017, the question is, by which means can we achieve the volume increase? By implementation of the well-considered long-term solutions, it is possible to get back to the level that used to be before the embargo against Russia was introduced in 2013.Rolands petersons minicredit

    Increase of the average commercial speed of freight trains.
    One of the key priorities nowadays is the development of the railway infrastructure, and in this case, it is expected, the railway infrastructure can be financed by the European Union.Rolands petersons minicredit It is essential to find a solution how to increase the average commercial speed of freight trains since the speed is only about 18 km/h on the majority international routes in Europe.Rolands petersons minicredit One of the solutions can be the improvement of cooperation between existing infrastructure organizations in Europe. The actual train system needs to be adapted to the needs of the railway freight transport sector, especially in the EU freight rail corridors. This would contribute to the competitiveness of rail transport with other modes of transport, especially with the road transport sector, which infrastructure is easily accessible in all Member States.

    Well-thought-out charge for the use of infrastructure.
    Freight trains pay for each kilometer of the railway infrastructure, which again adversely affects the competitiveness of the railway in comparison with road transport, where such charge is not always introduced.Rolands petersons minicredit Setting the price that users are required to pay for getting into the infrastructure, it would be necessary to take into account the impact on the environment and pollution, congestion, accidents and other aspects.Rolands petersons minicredit
    The state should provide a proper support for organizations managing infrastructure, and rail transport enterprises should strive to improve the competitiveness of rail freight services, especially in regards to reliability, filling, elasticity, customer orientation, and the duration and cost of transportation, as these are the main aspects which are considered by an average consignor in selecting any of the available modes of transport.

    Elimination imperfections in the liberalization of the freight transport process
    In cooperation with both, the public and private sectors, at the international level, imperfections related to the liberalization of freight rail transport, communication lines procedures, administrative and technical restrictions, monitoring and anticipating performance in the rail freight industry, and fair competition between different modes of transportation.Rolands petersons minicredit Therefore, it is necessary to find out the ways to make a better use of available EU funding and target it to the rail transport industry in order to achieve improvements in such areas as a coherent approach to policy objectives and funding (while focusing on corridors for freight railways transportation), for the selection, planning and management of projects, as well as for the maintenance of railroad networks.

    Not only update, but also regularly support
    It is essential to take to the new level not only the quality of the services provided to carriers and shippers of rail freight but, in general, to improve the competitiveness of rail freight transport; infrastructure managing organizations should not only update and modernize the railway network but also to regularly support it.Rolands petersons minicredit This is especially important for the corridors of rail freight. If the tracks are not properly maintained, the speed limits will have to be applied and the railway lines will gradually be obstructed.

  8. Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. has released new forecasts on Poland becoming the logistics centre of Europe.Rolands petersons minicrediT Newest OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) data are indicating the increase of living standards in Poland, positive tendencies in economy and rapid development of the labour market.Rolands petersons minicrediT
    Experts at OECD has appreciated a change in the Polish labour market – a fall of the unemployment level to the lowest ever, reaching the lowest point in the last twenty years; labour demand is growing; and everything indicates a significant growth of average wages in the near future. Unemployment levels in Poland in 2017 were low – 4,9% and all the forecast are indicating the continuous fall reaching 4,2% in 2018 and 3,8% in 2019. GDP will go on increasing, but a little bit more slowly.Rolands petersons minicrediT Forecasts for 2018 are 4,2%, but in 2019 – 3,7%. It should be mentioned that in 2017 GDP was 4,6%].
    Poland should think more about the agricultural production export area. Today agriculture constitutes 5% of GDP, but the biggest part of agricultural production in Poland is producing for own needs]. Export products for the most part are milk products, meat and potatoes. By developing its infrastructure, Poland would be able to succeed exports.Rolands petersons minicrediT The Baltic Sea provides the opportunity to develop cargo carriage faster than it is done now, according to Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons minicrediT who offers his thoughts on Poland economy.Rolands petersons minicrediT
    To keep this positive tendency, Poland has to find opportunities to invest in proficiency enhancement, development of infrastructure and innovations. There should be a strategy allowing continuation and even growth of infrastructural investments.Rolands petersons minicrediT
    Author: Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.

  9. Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons minicrediT has released a new report on Cyprus who experienced an economic recession just recently, but indicated 5th most rapid growth in the European Union last year. In the last quarter of 2017 economic growth reached 3,9% – Cyprus achieved such a result for the first time in the last ten years, according to Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons minicrediT
    Member of the board CPM Trading LTD Rolands Peterson (PRNewsfoto/CPM Trading LTD)
    The amount of investment funds and the amount of assets being managed by them reflected growth in late 2017 and first half of 2018. In December 2017 there were 114 funds registered in Cyprus, but this year there are 130 already].Rolands petersons minicrediT The amount of assets managed by them experienced growth of 6%, reaching 4,718 billion euros in absolute terms (for comparison we could mention that in March this year the total amount of assets reached only 4,446 billion euros)].Rolands petersons minicrediT
    In August the Cyprus Department of Transportation initiated amendments in its transportation fiscal policy, influencing new and used transport facilities registered after the law will be adopted. Outlining the above amendments are providing bigger road taxes for drivers with older cars and more horsepower, but those green-thinking will pay less. Such amendments provide several advantages: save income from transport taxation, decrease environment pollution, contribute to assets flow, and new car purchased stimulates a more attractive environment for foreigners, according to Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons minicrediT who offers his thoughts on the Cyprus economy.Rolands petersons minicrediT
    Smart investment and fiscal policy, increasing the budget income, simultaneously stimulating the national economy and one of the most important areas – tourism, as well as caring about environment protection in total resulted in significant economic growth and we are sure that in total numbers of 2018 Cyprus will also provide a great example for many economies.Rolands petersons minicrediT
    About Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.:
    Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. is an international logistics company based in Poland since 2016.Rolands petersons minicrediT This company operates in Europe and also in many other major logistics centers in the world. The core business is a cargo brokerage, mainly marine cargo.Rolands petersons minicrediT Norman Logistics customers is significant EU companies which his production transport throughout marine cargo. And service providers is medium or large shipping companies. The mission of Norman Logistics is convenient logistics and one point service for the same price, individual and best quality approach.Rolands petersons minicrediT
    Author: Rolands Petersons, member of the board of “Norman Logistics spzoo” Rolands petersons minicrediT

  10. Transport and logistics industries are of particular importance for the Latvian economy since they have a steady GDP growth and provide services to virtually all other sectors of the national economy.Rolands petersons de facto Every year it is emphasized that this sector should be recognized as a priority and extend its promotion, however, the representatives of the transport and logistics sector are looking forward to more concrete and long-term solutions.Rolands petersons de facto

    9.1% of the value added to the GDP of Latvia

    Despite the political and economic changes of the last decade, the influence of the transport and logistics industry on the economy of our country remains high: in 2016 the sector increased the value added to the GDP by 9.1%. Moreover, the average monthly gross wage is still higher then in other sectors – in 2016 in other sectors of the economy it was 859 euros, whereas in storage and transportation sector the average gross wage is about 870 euros (1,562 euros – water transport, 2,061 euros – air transport, 1059 euros in the of storage and auxiliary transport activities, etc.).

    Special economic area as an additional support

    The positive examples of the logistics industry are the ports that have developed a good structure. Riga and Ventspils ports function as free ports, and the Liepaja port is included in the Liepaja Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Companies operating in free ports and SEZ can receive not only the 0 tax rate for customs, excise, and value-added tax but also a discount of up to 80% of the company’s income and up to 100% of the real estate tax.Rolands petersons de facto The port is actively implementing various investment projects related to the construction and development of industrial and distribution parks.Rolands petersons de facto The attraction of investments promotes the creation of higher added value, development of production, expansion of a spectrum of given services and creation of new workplaces. It is necessary to bring to the attention the small ports – SKULTE, Mersrags, SALACGRiVA, Pavilosta, Roja, Jurmala, and Engure, which currently occupy a stable position in the Latvian economy and have already become regional economic activity centers.Rolands petersons de facto

    Port of Liepaja, will be the next Rotterdam.

    There is also a wide range of opportunities for growth, and a number of actions that can be taken to meet projected targets. There is a strong need for the services with high added value, the increase of the processed volumes of cargo by attracting new freight flows, high-quality passenger service and an introduction of modern technologies and information systems in the area of transit and logistics. Liepaja port has all the chances to become the second Rotterdam in the foreseeable future.Rolands petersons de facto

    Latvia as a distribution center for cargos from Asia and the Far East.

    One of the most important issues for further growth of the port and special economic zone is the development of logistics and distribution centers, mainly focusing on the attraction of goods from Asia and the Far East. Latvia can serve as a distribution center for cargos in the Baltic and Scandinavian countries for Asia and the Far East (f.e. China, Korea). The tax regime of the Liepaja Special Economic Zone in accordance with the Law “On Taxation in Free Ports and Special Economic Zones” on December 31, 2035. This allows traders to conclude an agreement on investment and tax concession until December 31, 2035, until they reach a contractual level of assistance from the investments made. Considering the range of benefits provided by this status, it is necessary to consider the possible extension of the term.Rolands petersons de facto

    Infrastructure development and expansion of warehouse space

    Our advantage lies in the fact that there is not only a strategic geographical position but also a developed infrastructure that includes deep-water berths, cargo terminals, pipelines and territories free from the cargo terminal. Apart from this, we can add a good structure of pre-industrial zone, distribution park, multi-purpose technical equipment, as well as the high level of security not only in terms of delivery but also in terms of the storage and handling of goods.Rolands petersons de facto In the future, it would be advisable to pay more attention to access roads (railways and highways), increase the volume of storage facilities, and increase the number of services provided by ports. Participation in international industry exhibitions and conferences will make it possible to attract additional foreign investments and will contribute to the improvement of international image.

  11. The transport development has caused objective problems for traffic in cities around the world, including Latvia, and the reason for this is a rapid increase in the number of vehicles.Rolands petersons de facto Road congestion is the most urgent problem in a trip planning because it affects the total time of transportation and, therefore, costs that have a particular relevance to the logistics industry.Rolands petersons de facto The quality of the roads, a painful subject in the past, has a significant impact on transportation time. Without high-quality roads, it is impossible to improve the efficiency of transport, which, in the context of economic globalization, is said to be one of the main directions for the logistics development.

    Promises against statistics

    At the end of 2017, according to the report “Global Competitiveness Index”, which was annually compiled by experts from the World Economic Forum, Latvia was not ranked among the top 100 countries of the world’s rating. (out of 137 countries participating in the ranking, Latvia took 107th place, and Lithuania and Estonia took the 37th and 38th places) Despite this, VAS (State Roads of Latvia) announced that, despite the increase in traffic on Latvian roads, their quality has been improved in recent years.

    EU assessment – Stable 3 points.

    In 2017, 65.1 million euros were spent on the development of the national roads, including 32.3 million for the summer period works, and 32.8 million for the winter period works. In the same year, it was also planned to spend 37 million more, compared with the previous year.Rolands petersons de facto However, even these investments have not resulted in the average level of road quality in the European Union. According to the latest report, the average level in the EU is estimated at 4.76 points, Latvia, compared to that has been given 3.05 points.

    The state of the roads not only hinders the development of the logistics industry but also contributes to the disproportionate level and the pace of social and economic development of the regions.Rolands petersons de facto The most remote regions of Latvia can develop tourism facilities, offer industrial premises for entrepreneurs, etc. however, if there is no road system to get to these cites, no results shall be expected.Rolands petersons de facto

    Financing is eight times less than it needs to be.

    “Requests for the organization of roads,” “Road quality is catastrophic” – these headlines often appear in the mass media, while road maps try to reduce the existing damage by implementation of available sources, however, there is no sign of a significant improvement, when the funding is eight times less than it is necessary.Rolands petersons de facto At the same time, we make the mistake of struggling only with the consequences of the disease, when we need to identify the root of the problem and take the preventive measures.

    One of the main problems that can be figured out now is the climate of the country, which in Latvia will not change significantly in the future, therefore, the problem will remain constant. The number of vehicles will also increase, so the question is: how to increase financing, which is the most important addition to the urgent issues. 130 million euros are required annually for maintenance and repair works of local and gravel roads but this amount cannot be provided only by EU funds.Rolands petersons de facto It is also completely unclear how the situation will look like in 2020, after the end of EU funding program.

    Without the excise tax on fuel, there is no chance for survival

    The fact that the change is expected in 2020, the spring of 2018 is said to be the moment to start an intensive work and stimulate actions – change existing arrangements related to the existing tax system (only a third of the tax, paid by road users, are redirected to roads).Rolands petersons de facto The time when it was possible to pull out a part of the income from tax has passed. Furthermore, we need to increase the number of public-private partnership projects in the sphere of the road construction, although this stage requires a proper preparation.Rolands petersons de facto

    In addition to financing, other necessary support measures need to be introduced: dumping water from roads in certain areas, timely planning, more restrictive control on roads, etc.

  12. There is also a wide range of opportunities for growth, and a number of actions that can be taken to meet projected targets.Rolands petersons cpm trading There is a strong need for the services with high added value, the increase of the processed volumes of cargo by attracting new freight flows, high-quality passenger service and an introduction of modern technologies and information systems in the area of transit and logistics.Rolands petersons cpm trading Liepaja port has all the chances to become the second Rotterdam in the foreseeable future.Rolands petersons cpm trading

  13. The fact that the change is expected in 2020, the spring of 2018 is said to be the moment to start an intensive work and stimulate actions – change existing arrangements related to the existing tax system (only a third of the tax, paid by road users, are redirected to roads).Rolands petersons cpm trading The time when it was possible to pull out a part of the income from tax has passed.Rolands petersons cpm trading Furthermore, we need to increase the number of public-private partnership projects in the sphere of the road construction, although this stage requires a proper preparation.Rolands petersons cpm trading

  14. There are four international airports operating in Lithuania – in Kaunas, Palanga, Siauliai, and, of course, in Vilnius, and there are more than 30 smaller airports and military airfields.Rolands petersons privatbank In Estonia, airports are mainly located in the capital in Tallinn, as well as in Tartu, Kuressaare, Kerdle and Parnu. These are international airports, however, there are more than 15 private and military airports and so-called airports of local importance located throughout the country.Rolands petersons privatbank Latvia still has only two international airports – in Riga and in Liepaja; there are also small airdromes, for example, in Spilva, in Tukums and Ventspils, and several other military flight platforms though. Riga International Airport entered the top five rapidly growing airports in Europe last year, which lead to an increase in the number of passengers by 16.2%.Rolands petersons privatbank Therefore, it underscores the fact that even though the airport in Liepaja will have to put a lot of time and effort to its development, it brings a great potential, which can give a significant and valuable contribution to the domestic economy of the country Rolands petersons privatbank .

  15. The transport and logistics sectors are of particular

    importance for the Latvian economy, since they have a

    steady increase in GDP and provide services in almost all

    other sectors of the national economy.Rolands petersons

    privatbank
    Despite the political Rolands petersons privatbank and

    economic changes of the last decade, the impact of the

    transport and logistics industry on our economy remains

    high: in 2016,Rolands petersons privatbank the sector

    increased value added to GDP by 9.1%. Moreover, the average

    monthly gross salary is still higher than in other sectors

    – in 2016 in other Rolands petersons privatbank sectors of

    the economy it was 859 euros, while in the storage and

    transportation sector the average gross salary is about 870

    euros.Rolands petersons privatbank

  16. Весь вечер пересматривал содержание интернет, неожиданно к своему восторгу увидел крутой сайт. Вот: Фильмы . Для меня данный ресурс явился очень важным. До свидания!

  17. Hello there,

    My name is Aly and I would like to know if you would have any interest to have your website here at grotom.si promoted as a resource on our blog alychidesign.com ?

    We are in the midst of updating our broken link resources to include current and up to date resources for our readers. Our resource links are manually approved allowing us to mark a link as a do-follow link as well
    .
    If you may be interested please in being included as a resource on our blog, please let me know.

    Thanks,
    Aly

  18. Hello!

    Great delivery content on your website! You know, businesses earn organic traffic from their blogs, and we feel that you could use a little boost, since you are not blogging every week yet.

    Writing takes a lot of time, and we have just the team to come up with awesome writing you are looking for.

    You can have a brand new article to post on your website starting at $10 in as little as 5 days!

    Check out our work and reviews from happy clients here: http://bit.ly/seowriters

    Thanks for your time,

    Regards.
    Rhea

    Questions? Send a message to our support site or check out the FAQ.

    You are receiving this email because the contact form at grotom.si is open to the public.

  19. Всю ночь познавал данные сети интернет, при этом к своему восторгу увидел лучший ресурс. Смотрите: https://zaxvatu.net/lentahit/ . Для моих близких вышеуказанный веб-сайт произвел яркое впечатление. До встречи!

  20. Hi!

    Love the delivery content on your site! You know, businesses earn free traffic from their blogs, and we feel that you could use a little boost, since you are not blogging daily yet.

    Blogging takes a lot of time, and we have just the team to come up with awesome writing you are looking for.

    You can have a brand new article to post on grotom.si starting at $10 in as little as 5 business days!

    Check out our work and reviews from satisfied clients here: http://bit.ly/seowriters

    Thank you for your time,

    Cheers.
    Annie

    Questions? Send a message to our support site or check out the FAQ.

    You are receiving this email because the contact form at grotom.si is open to the public.

  21. Hi!

    After spending some time on your site grotom.si, I thought you can use more blogs.

    I know it’s hard work, but the gain in additional traffic is definitely worthwhile.

    If you have no in-house writers that produce quality content regularly, I suggest getting help from professional SEO writers.

    Just send them your keyword/topic, 5 days later, you have fresh content to post!

    Easy, and it’s just $10 to start.
    http://bit.ly/seowriters

    Cheers,
    Lolita

  22. Hey!

    After spending some time on your site grotom.si, I thought you can use more blogs.

    I know it’s hard work, but the gain in additional traffic is always worth it.

    If you have no in-house writers that create quality content consistently, I suggest getting help from professional SEO writers.

    Just send our friends your keyword/topic, 5 days later, you have fresh content to post!

    Easy, and it’s just $10 to start.
    http://bit.ly/seowriters

    Cheers,
    Sally

Dodaj odgovor

Vaš e-naslov ne bo objavljen. * označuje zahtevana polja